The Foam Book
Aqueous Foam Technology References
The Aqueous Foam Technology Book
Present, M.T., U.S. Patent 3,466,873, September 16, 1969 Sanitary Landfill Method
Johnston, F. B., U.S. Patent 4,127,383, November 28, 1978 Foaming Waste Treatment Composition and Method for Treating Nitrogenous Waste Material Therewith
Kramer, F., U.S. Patent 4,421,788, December 20, 1983 Method and Apparatus for Coating A Substrate with Foamed Plastic
Kramer, F., U.S. Patent 4,519,338, May 28, 1985 Apparatus and Method for Applying a Foam Layer to Cover and Seal Dumped Waste
Kent, D.W., U.S. Patent 4,795,590, January 3, 1989 Treatment of Hazardous Material with Vapor Suppressing Persistent, Water-Containing, Polymeric Air Foam
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,874,641, October 17, 1989 Method of Providing a Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
Alm, R.R. U.S. Patent 4,923,903, May 8, 1990 Dyed Aqueous Air Foams
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,990,373, February 5, 1991 Membrane-Forming Foam Composition and Method
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,011,330, April 30, 1991 Foam Distribution Apparatus
Stern, R.M., U.S. Patent 5,026,735, June 25, 1991 Treatment of Hazardous Materials with Aqueous Air Foam of Polyhydroxy Polymer
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,066,428, November 19, 1991 Foam Generating Apparatus
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,096,616, March 17, 1992 Method of providing a Foam Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
Norman, E.C., U.S. Patent 5,133,991, July 28, 1992 Method for Applying a Biodegradable Protein Foam to a Substrate
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,215,786, June 1, 1993 Composition for Providing a Foam barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and the Method of Use
DiMaio, L.R., U.S. Patent 5,225,095, July 6, 1993 Foam Concentrate
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,556,033, September 17, 1996 Apparatus for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
Chao, Y. H., U.S. Patent 5,696,174, December 9, 1997 Stable and Water-resistant Aqueous Foam Composition
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,849,364, December 15, 1998 Self-Foaming Sprayable Composition
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,853,050, December 29, 1998 Composition and Method for Generating a Foam Barrier and Methods of Use Thereof
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,897,946, April 27, 1999 Flowable Material to Isolate or Treat a Surface
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 6,096,373, August 1, 2000 Sprayable Composition and Method for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 6,929,423, August 16, 2005 Gas Recovery From Landfills Using Aqueous Foam
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 6,994,491, February 7, 2006 Gas Recovery From Landfills Using Aqueous Foam (H2S Control)
Kittle, P.A., "Flammability of Plastics & Polymers Used as Alternate Daily Covers - A Summary of Technical Information from the Public Domain," Technical Report, West Chester, PA, April, 1993.
Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Comparison of Long Duration Foam, Synthetic Tarpaulins, Geotextiles, and Soil as Subtitle D Compliant Daily Cover Materials for Sanitary Landfills," Technical Report, West Chester, PA February, 1992.
"Sanitary Landfill Cover Materials Compared," Public Works, May, 1993, page 51.
Kittle, P.A., " Alternate Daily Cover Materials and Subtitle D - The Selection Technique," Technical Report, West Chester, PA, June, 1993.
Kittle, P.A., " Alternative Daily Cover Materials and Subtitle D - Control of Fires," Technical Report, West Chester, PA, October, 1993.
Kittle, P.A., "Flammability of Alternative Daily Cover Materials - A Summary of ASTM E1354 Cone Calorimeter Results," Technical Report, West Chester, PA, October, 1993.
Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control - AC-900L and AC-900 Foam Using the Surface Emission Isolation Flux Chamber," Technical Report, West Chester, PA , November, 1991.
Kittle, P.A., " Sanitary Landfill Alternative Covers - Combustibility and Control of Fire," The Times, National Fire Protection Association, Fire Service Newsletter, Issue #2, July, 1994, page 10, and, The Information Source, Official Publication of the National Association of State Fire Marshals, Volume 2, Issue 1, August, 1994, page 10.
Kittle, P.A., "Four Aqueous Foam Sanitary Landfill Applications," Waste Management Technology Forum, Houston, TX, August 10, 2004.
C.E. Schmidt is the co-inventor of the flux chamber, the technology used to measure the emissions in these studies. He is the co-author of the primary text on the subject, "Assessment and Control of VOC Emissions from Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities," Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01229-2. His consulting firm can be contacted at 19200 Live Oak Road, Red Bluff, CA 96080, telephone, 530-529-4256, fax, 530-529-4878, or by using his e-mail link, or his web page.
The membrane forming foam composition (U.S. Patent 4,990,373) has been used successfully on sanitary landfills to seal and odor control leachate breakouts.
ASTM Committee D-35.03 has a task group, chaired by Mark Cadwallader, developing a Standard on the subject of Alternative Daily Cover Materials. Additional information can be obtained from the Staff Manager for ASTM Committee D-35, or the ASTM web page. A draft standard has submitted for preliminary D-35 Committee vote.
UPDATED, 01/06/10 10:29 AM