The Foam Book
Aqueous Foam Technology References
The Aqueous Foam Technology Book
Fisher, G.M., U.S. Patent 1,985,491, December 25, 1934 Froth for Sealing Volatile Liquids
Barthauer, G.L., U.S. Patent 3,479,285, November 18, 1969 Foam Producing Materials and Method for Atmospheric Control with High Expansion Foam
Johnston, B. J., U.S. Patent 4,127,383, November 28, 1978 Foaming Waste Treatment Composition and Method for Treating Nitrogenous Waste Material Therewith
Chay, D.M., U.S. Patent 4,284,601, August 18, 1981 Surfactant Foams and Their Use
Kent, D.W., U.S. Patent 4,795,590, January 3, 1989 Treatment of Hazardous Material with Vapor Suppressing Persistent, Water-Containing, Polymeric Air Foam
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,874,641, October 17, 1989 Method of providing a Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,990,373, February 5, 1991 Membrane-Forming Foam Composition and Method
Stern, R.M., U.S. Patent 5,026,735, June 25, 1991 Treatment of Hazardous Materials with Aqueous Air Foam of Polyhydroxy Polymer
Thach, S., U.S. Patent 5,434,192, July 18, 1995 High-Stability Foams for Long-Term Suppression of Hydrocarbon Vapors
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,556,033, September 17, 1996 Apparatus for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
Aubert, W.G., U.S. Patent 5,782,580, July 21, 1998 Soil Remediation Method
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,849,364, December 15, 1998 Self-Foaming Sprayable Composition
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,897,946, April 27, 1999 Flowable Material to Isolate or Treat a Surface
Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 6,096,373, August 1, 2000 Sprayable Composition and Method for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
Hayes, T.D., U.S. Patent 6,210,955, April 3, 2001 Foam Transport Process for In-Situ Remediation of Contaminated Soils
Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Comparison of Long Duration Foam, Synthetic Tarpaulins, Geotextiles, and Soil as Subtitle D Compliant Daily Cover Materials for Sanitary Landfills," Technical Report, West Chester, PA February, 1992.
Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control of AC-900L and AC-900 Foam Using the Surface Emission Isolation Flux Chamber," Technical Report, West Chester, PA , November, 1991.
ASTM 1129-88, "Guide for Using Aqueous Foams to Control the Vapor Hazard from Immiscible Volatile Liquids." This guide is included in a larger publication, "ASTM Standards on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response," ISBN 0-8031-1798-1, and they are both obtainable from ASTM directly or through their web site
C.E. Schmidt is the co-inventor of the flux chamber, the technology used to measure the emissions in these studies. He is the co-author of the primary text on the subject, "Assessment and Control of VOC Emissions from Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities," Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01229-2. His consulting firm can be contacted at 19200 Live Oak Road, Red Bluff, CA 96080, telephone, 530-529-4256, fax, 530-529-4878, or by using his e-mail link, or his web page.
Foams have been used for VOC and odor control in the following typical applications: sanitary and hazardous, landfill excavation, leachate storage tanks, sanitary landfill leachate breakouts, storage ponds, storage tanks, material transportation, hazardous landfills, water and sewage treatment plants, sludge storage areas, dredging operations, pond closures, chemical spills, and accidents.
The Institute of Gas Technology has published a paper on the use of foam for delivering "chemicals and bioactivity stimulating amendments" to sludge lagoons at former manufactured gas plants: Hayes, T.D. and Srivastava, V.J., "Foam Mediated Remediation Technology for Gas Industry Applications," in Proceedings of the International Gas Research Conference, Cannes, France, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, November 6-9, 1995.
UPDATED, 01/06/10 10:29 AM